Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that occurs when a children is above normal weight for his age and height. Main cause for childhood obesity includes irregular eating habits, lack of physical activities, etc. There are several associated effects also like cholesterol problem, blood pressure, diabetes, etc.
The Journal of Childhood Obesity is an open access and peer reviewed journal that aims at providing complete and reliable information about the causes, cure, effects and prevention of childhood obesity and related effects by publishing articles, review papers, case reports and making them freely available for all.
The Journal of Childhood Obesity deals with all fields of treating childhood obesity involving child nutrition, pediatrics obesity, skinfold thickness, insulin resistance, physical education, weight management, food choice, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose, energy balance, etc.
The journal process all manuscripts through Editorial Management System for quality publication. Editorial Manager System is an online manuscript submission system which reviews and processes the articles and review papers; at least two independent reviewer’s approval is mandatory followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors can submit their manuscript and track its progress through this system. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.
According to the world survey statistics, childhood obesity statistics has dramatically multiplied in kids and quadrupled in teenagers in the previous 30 years. The rate of youngsters aged 6-11 years in the United States who were obese expanded from 7% in 1980 to about 18% in 2012. In 2012, more than 33% of kids and youths were overweight or obese. In some of the countries like Virginia the obesity rate is steadily increasing but the obesity statistic rate two times more than the new national average. But according to the child obesity statistics there is no change in obesity prevalence in youth or adults between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Obesity prevalence remains high and thus it is important to continue surveillance.
Childhood Obesity can be prevented by the help of parents and other family members, by applying small changes in the daily food habits. One can encourage healthy habits in their children by not giving high calorie products to their children. The children should not be addicted to them. They should help their children to be physically active by regular games and exercise. Childhood Obesity can be prevented by reducing the amount intake of carbonated drinks. Childhood Obesity can be prevented by encouraging your child to develop new habits by using sedentary life styles.
Birth weight of the first born should not be less than 5.5 pounds, and not more than 8.8 pounds. 315,099 babies were born with less weight (less than 2500 grams). Baby born with low birth weight is 8.0%, baby born with very low birth weight is 1.4%, and number of pre term births is 447,361.
Nutrition Education is combination of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental support, it is designed to facilitate voluntary adoption of food choices and other food- and nutrition-related behaviour conducive to health and well-being. Nutrition education provides Service to support the Child Nutrition Programs through training and technical assistance for foodservice, nutrition education for children and their caregivers, and school and community support for healthy eating and physical activity.
Body Mass Index is a calculation that uses our height and weight to estimate how much body fat we have. Too much body fat is a problem because it can lead to illnesses and other health problems. Body Mass Index although not a perfect method for judging someone's weight, it is often a good way to check on how a kid is growing. The best way to determine your body mass index is to have your doctor do it for you.
1. Underweight: less than the 5th percentile 2. Healthy weight: greater than or equal to 5th but less than 85th percentiles (in other words: 5th to 84th percentile) 3. Overweight: greater than or equal to 85th but less than 95th percentiles (85th to 94th percentile) 4. Obese: greater than or equal to the 95th percentile. A kid whose body mass index is at the 50th percentile is close to average compared with the kids of the same age and gender who were measured to make the chart. Kids at the 85th to 94th percentiles are considered overweight. And a kid who measures at or above the 95th percentile is considered obese, a term doctors use that means very overweight.
Journals related to Body Mass Index
Bioresource Technology, Comptes Rendus-Geoscience, European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, Comptes Rendus-Academie des Sciences, Serie III: Sciences de la Vie, Diabete et Metabolism
Parents play a vital role in the child health care. Parents are so important to each child's growth and development, we consider them as partners in the child health and care of their children.
Our total approach of child health care emphasizes preventive medicine, proper diet and fitness as well as check-ups and care for illness. Together, we work towards optimum health of your child growth and development.
Journals of Child Healthcare
Healthcare Informatics Research: Journal of Nursing and Healthcare Research, MultiMedia Healthcare Inc, Australian Healthcare Association, British Journal of Hospital Medicine
The World Health Organization states that breast feeding is an unequally way of providing food for the healthy growth and development of infant feeding. Breast feeding is beneficial to infants, mothers, families and society and is considered as the biological norm for infant and infant feeding. Exclusive breast feeding ensures that the infant receives the full nutritional and other advantages of breastmilk. It is recommended that infant is exclusively breast fed until around six months of age. After introducing solid food to diet; breast feeding can be continued until 12 months of age and beyond as per desire of mother and child. Australia’s breastfeeding initiation rate is currently high at 96%, only 15% of infants.
Journals of Infant Feeding
International Breastfeeding Journal, Breastfeeding Medicine, Newborn and Infant Nursing Review, Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil, Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico
Children eating behaviour is important in terms of children’s health. Evidence also indicates that dietary habits acquired in childhood persist through to adulthood. In addition, research also indicates a role for childhood eating behaviour on adult health.
Most of the research also shows that most of the children’s eating behaviour in the Western world are unsatisfactory. For example, the Heart Study in the US showed that the majority of 10 year olds exceeded the American Heart Association dietary recommendations for total fat, saturated fat and dietary cholesterol. A survey in the UK showed a similar picture, with 75% of children aged 10-11 exceeding the recommended target level for percentage of energy derived from fat Comparable results have also been reported.
Journals related to Eating Behaviour in Children
Eating and Weight Disorders, Eating Disorders Review, International Journal of Eating Disorders
Food choice building people’s confidence in cooking food make Europeans healthier. Very few of our taste preferences are biologically present. Much rather they are linked with some sort of experience. Although there are some genetic factors that cause differences in food choices like taste perception, similarities in taste preferences much more commonly reflect similar experiences with types of flavours and foods. The shaping of taste preferences begins in the womb and continues throughout the rest of our lives. The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents) study gives new insights into the food and lifestyle habits of young people in food choice and five countries and shows surprising similarities, as well as some key differences, across Europe.
Journals related to Food Choices
Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, European Food Research and Technology, Food Additives and Contaminants-Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, Global Food Security
"Adult" health problems, and are now recognized as common conditions among youths. Recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimate 17% of youths ages 2-19 years old to be overweight compared to just 5% a few decades ago. Depression also impacts huge number of youth. Prevalence of major depressive disorder has been estimated to be 2% of children and 4-8% of adolescents. Note that in the following, “children” generally means up to 12 years of age, while “adolescents” are 13 years and above. The word “youths” is referred collectively to both child obesity and depression. The high prevalence of these individual conditions is alarm given to the health and socioeconomic burdens associated with these problems, and the limited efficiency of current treatment interventions. The Surgeon General has highlighted both pediatric obesity and depression as major public health issues in recent reports. In the 2000 year report on children and mental health, the Surgeon General emphasized that reoccurance of childhood depression episodes is common and depression “may leave behind psychological scars that increase vulnerability throughout early life”. In 2003, the Surgeon General testified on “The Child Obesity and Depression Crisis in America” that the annual cost of obesity in the US in the year 2000 was 117 billion dollars, and that obesity epidemics have been followed by pediatric epidemics of type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
Obese children tended to belong to families characterised by a domineering, overprotective mother, a weak father, and lack of responsiveness, warmth, and support towards the obese child. Later, studies also suggested that childhood obesity may be associated with some specific family characteristics, such as family cohesion, conflict, disorganisation, a lack of interest in social and cultural activities, and parental neglect. Other studies, however, have failed to support the hypothesis that obese children come from families displaying such dysfunctional traits. Thus, no clear pattern of family dynamics has consistently been associated with obesity. Previous studies examining the role of family and parental factors in childhood obesity have often been limited by small sample sizes, and a single measure of family function/dysfunction. Moreover, most previous studies have been based on the assumption that poor family functioning will be associated with inadequate parental monitoring and/or regulation of children’s eating and activity patterns.
Junk food can be appealing for a variety of reasons, including convenience, price and taste. For children, who do not always understand the health consequences of their eating habits, junk food may appear especially appetizing. However, regularly consuming fattening junk food can be addictive for children and lead to complications like obesity, chronic illness, low self-esteem and even depression, as well as affecting how they perform in school and extracurricular activities.
Journals related to Junk Food
Circulation Journal, Japanese Circulation Journal, CYTA-Journal of Food, Food Engineering Reviews, Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety
Weight reduction is a useful remedy that is applied in case of obesity and overweight. This is mainly done through physical exercise and by the adaption of healthy diet. Weight reduction is also done through surgeries namely gastric bypass surgery, bariatric surgery, etc.
Journals related to Weight Reduction
Journal of Nutrition & Weight Loss; Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Weight loss surgery is the bariatric surgery may be an option for adults with severe obesity. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of height in relation to weight, is used to define levels of obesity. Clinically severe obesity is a BMI >40 or a BMI >35 with a serious health problem linked to obesity. Such health problems could be type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or severe sleeping sickness (when breathing stops for short periods during sleep). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved use of an adjustable gastric band (or AGB) for patients with BMI >30 who also have at least one condition linked to obesity, such as heart disease or diabetes. Having surgery to produce weight loss is a serious decision. Anyone thinking about having this surgery should know what it involves.
Adipose tissue main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Obesity in animals, including humans, is not dependent on the amount of body weight, but on the amount of body fat-specifically adipose tissue. In mammals, two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue is primarily located beneath the skin, but is also found around internal organs. In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold. Around organs, it provides protective padding. It also functions as a reserve of nutrients.
Journals related to Adipose Tissue
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Acta Anatomica, Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair, Tissue Culture Association Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials, and Tissue Engineering
Dietary habit affects both short and long term by what, how much, and how often you eat. You obtain energy and nutrients from carbohydrates, fat and protein, vitamins and minerals. In addition to these you need water, and your digestive systems needs fibres to function well. But it is not sufficient to eat well if you want a healthy lifestyle. This consists of a combination of good food and physical exercise habits. A varied, regular dietary habit increases your chances to obtain the energy and nutrients you need throughout the day. Three meals at approximately 3-4 hour intervals is a good rule of thumb. You also need a few snacks throughout the day, such as a sandwich, yoghurt and/or fruit. Spreading your meals evenly throughout the day will result in stabilized blood sugar levels which should make you feel less tired, more able to concentrate, and less of a need to snack in between meals.
Journals related to Dietary Habits
Journal of Dietary Supplements, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Klio, Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
A sound eating routine helps youngsters develop and learn. It likewise aides forestall obesity and weight-related infections. This can be done if the parents follow some regular healthy routine for their children. This includes healthy sources of protein, limited junk food, consumption of milk and water instead of high energy drinks, etc.
Fatty liver is a disease in which extra triglyceride fats get accumulated in the liver cells. This disease mainly occurs in persons with high alcohol intake and overweight. In this disease, extra fat gets accumulated in liver leading to inflammation or enlargement of liver.
Physical education is an important part in day today’s life. It greatly affects an individual’s lifestyle and health. Regular physical exercise helps an individual to be free from health related problems such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, etc. It is the best way to remain healthy and fit throughout one’s life.
Body fat distribution varies from person to person. In some people, body’s fat gets accumulated more below waist that in thighs and buttocks. Those persons appear to be pear shaped and their obesity is referred to as gynoid obesity. While some other may have more fat in their upper body parts like chest, neck and shoulders giving them an apple shaped figure. They are referred to have android obesity.
Weight Management is a procedure which is done to neutralize extra weight in the body. It is mainly done through various weight loss programs that are guided and organized by different organizations. It is mainly done by guiding people and their family to lead a healthy life through healthy dietary intake and regular physical exercise.
Health Check tools are the measuring methods that help the common people to get the information about their weight, blood pressure, blood sugar level, urine test, cholesterol level, etc. These are provided by health services organization in order to make common people aware of their body fitness.
Journals related to Health Check Tools
Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica, Modern Healthcare, Molecular Medicine Reports, Motor Control Mutagenesis
Waist circumference is considered as an estimation of body fat, especially your internal fat deposit and livelihood of developing weight related disease. Waist circumference is a better estimation of visceral fat, the internal fat coats the organs. Therefore it is more accurate to know about cardiovascular risks, type 2 diabetes syndrome in women and metabolic syndrome. It is important to measure your waist circumference accurately. Waist circumference is less accurate in some situations, including pregnancy, medical conditions where there is distension of the abdomen, for certain ethnic groups and for children and young people.
Adipose tissue functions as an active endocrine organ to modulate physiological metabolic processes. As adipose tissue contains various cell types such as adipocytes, immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, it produces and releases diverse secretory proteins called adipokine into the systemic circulation. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues produce unique profiles of adipokines to mediate inflammation and insulin resistance in obese rodents and humans. Inflammatory adipokines according to their effects on inflammatory responses in adipose tissues. Most adipokines show pro-inflammatory activity with the noted exceptions of adiponectin, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (Vaspin), and omentin-1. The pro-inflammatory adipokines are increased whereas the anti-inflammatory adipokines are decreased in obese rodents and humans that are associated with insulin resistance. Adipose tissue was considered as an inert energy storage organ that accumulates and stores triacylglycerols during energy excess and releases fatty acids in times of systemic energy need. However, over the last two decades adipose tissue depots have been established as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs that modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. In rodents, brown adipose tissue plays an essential role in non-shivering thermogenesis and in energy dissipation that can serve to protect against diet-induced obesity. White adipose tissue collectively referred too as either subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue is responsible for the secretion of an array of signaling molecules, termed adipokines. These adipokines function as classic circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including brain, liver, muscle, the immune system, and adipose tissue itself.
"Leptin" is not our obesity hormone. Leptin is our starvation hormone. Leptin is a protein that's made in the fat cells, circulates in the bloodstream, and goes to the brain. Leptin is the way your fat cells tell your brain that your energy thermostat is set right. Leptin tells brain that enough energy is stored in fat cells to engage in normal, relatively expensive metabolic processes. Leptin levels are genetically set at a certain threshold for each person, when your leptin level is above that threshold, brain senses that you have energy sufficiency, which means you can burn energy at a normal rate, eat food at a normal amount, engage in exercise at a normal rate, and you can engage in expensive processes, like puberty and pregnancy. When leptin level goes below your personal leptin threshold, brain senses starvation. That can occur at any leptin level, depending on what your leptin threshold is.
Fat metabolism is a biological metabolic process that breaks down ingested fats into fatty acids and glycerol after which into simpler compounds that can be used with the aid of cells of the body. These compounds ultimately gets processed and broken down to produce energy to the body cells.The sum of the physical and chemical changes involved in the breakdown and synthesis of fats in the body. Dietary fats are digested to fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine, absorbed, and reformed into triglycerides that are transported in the form of chylomicrons. Fats may be stored in adipose tissue as potential energy or may be broken down to provide immediate energy. The liver has enzymes for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids and their use in the Krebs cycle. Fats may be formed from excess dietary carbohydrate or amino acids. Synthetic reactions produce phospholipids and steroids.
Author(s): Naidoo T, Maharajh LR and Balakrishna Y
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